Refers to the height of a column of water that can be supported by the pressure
or vacuum exerted at the pump.
|Static Suction Head||
The vertical distance between the pump impeller and the surface of the liquid on
the suction side of the pump.
|Dynamic Suction Head||
The static suction head plus the additional suction head created by friction from
the liquid flowing through the hoses, fittings, etc. Atmospheric pressure enables
pumps to lift water. As a result, an atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi at sea level
limits practical dynamic suction head lift to less than approximately 26 feet for
|Static Discharge Head||
The vertical distance between the pump's discharge port and the point of discharge,
which is the liquid surface if the hose is submerged or pumping into the bottom
of a tank.
|Dynamic Discharge Head||
The static discharge head plus the additional discharge head created by friction
or resistance (usually referred to as losses) from the liquid flowing through the
hoses, fittings, sprinklers, nozzle, etc.
The dynamic suction head plus the dynamic discharge head.
Pressure is force per unit area and is usually listed in psi (pounds per square
inch). Pressure is often included in pump performance curves. Pressure and head
are directly related when referring to pump performance. The pressure exerted (in
psi) at the base of a column of water is 0.433 x Head (in feet). If you attach pressure
gauge at the base of a pipe 100 feet tall pipe filled with clear water, you would
measure 43.3 psi. Notice how the diameter of the pipe doesn't affect the pressure
value. The maximum pressure (at zero discharge) of any pump can be determined by
multiplying the maximum head by 0.433.
The additional pressure or head created at the pump due to the friction of the liquid
flowing through the hoses, pipes, fittings, etc. Friction losses always occur when
a liquid is flowing through pipes and becomes greater as the length of pipe increases
and/or the diameter decreases. Friction losses result in reduced pump output and
can be minimized by used the largest and shortest hoses possible. Friction losses
are included in dynamic suction and dynamic discharge head.
An impeller is a rotating disk containing vanes coupled to the engine's crankshaft.
All centrifugal pumps contain an impeller. The impeller vanes sling liquid outward
through centrifugal force, causing a pressure change. This pressure change results
in liquid flowing through the pump.
The volute is the stationary housing enclosing the impeller. The volute collects
and directs the flow of liquid from the impeller and increases the pressure of the
high velocity water flowing from the vanes of the impeller.
Most centrifugal pumps require the pump casing to be filled with water before starting.
Self-priming is a term often used to describe pumps that have the ability to purge
air from the case and create a partial vacuum, allowing water begin flowing through
the suction hose. All Honda pumps are defined as self-priming.
This is a spring-loaded seal consisting of several parts that seals the rotating
impeller in the pump case and prevents water from leaking into and damaging the
engine. Mechanical seals are subject to wear when pumping water containing abrasives
and will quickly overheat if the pump is run without filling the pump chamber with
water before starting the engine. Honda trash pumps contain silicone carbide mechanical
seals, designed to withstand abrasive conditions.
The sudden formation and collapse of low-pressure vapor (bubbles) across the vanes
of the impeller. When the surface pressure on a liquid becomes low enough, the liquid
will begin to boil (even at room temperature). With centrifugal pumps, cavitation
can occur when the suction vacuum becomes to great enough to allow water vapor or
bubbles to begin forming at the impeller. When this water vapor travels through
the rapid pressure increase across the impeller, a large amount of energy is released
which can cause impeller damage. Minimizing suction head and using the largest practical
suction hose diameter will reduce the likelihood of cavitation. You should never
use a suction hose with a diameter smaller than the pump's suction port.
|Water Hammer||Water Hammer is energy transmitted back to the pump due to the sudden stoppage of water flowing from the pump. Water hammer is more likely to occur when using a very long discharge hose. If the flow of water at the end of the discharge hose is shut off in less than the "critical time", energy is transmitted back to the pump causing a large pressure spike in the pump housing. Water hammer often results in damage to the pump casing.|
For a better understanding of how pumps work, go to Pump Theory.